For 2018, you can’t claim a personal exemption deduction for yourself, your spouse, or your dependents.
THIS MEANS THAT…you will not be able to reduce the income that is subject to tax by the exemption amount for each person included on your tax return as you have in previous years. However, changes to the standard deduction amount and Child Tax Credit may offset at least part of this change for most families and, in some cases, may result in a larger refund.
Child tax credit and additional child tax credit
For 2018, the maximum credit increased to $2,000 per qualifying child. Up to $1,400 of the credit can be refundable for each qualifying child as the additional child tax credit. In addition, the income threshold at which the child tax credit begins to phase out is increased to $200,000, or $400,000 if married filing jointly.
THIS MEANS THAT…more families with children under 17 qualify for the larger credit. See 2018 Publication 972, Child Tax Credit, for more information.
Credit for other dependents
A new credit of up to $500 is available for each of your qualifying dependents other than children who can be claimed for the child tax credit. The qualifying dependent must be a U.S. citizen, U.S. national, or U.S. resident alien. The credit is calculated with the child tax credit in the form instructions. The total of both credits is subject to a single phase out when adjusted gross income exceeds $200,000, or $400,000 if married filing jointly.
THIS MEANS THAT…you may be able to claim this credit if you have children age 17 or over, including college students, children with ITINs, or or other older relatives in your household.
Social security number required for child tax credit
Beginning with Tax Year 2018, your child must have a Social Security Number issued by the Social Security Administration before the due date of your tax return (including extensions) to be claimed as a qualifying child for the Child Tax Credit or Additional Child Tax Credit. Children with an ITIN can’t be claimed for either credit. If your child’s immigration status has changed so that your child is now a U.S. citizen or permanent resident but the child’s social security card still has the words “Not valid for employment” on it, ask the SSA for a new social security card without those words.
If your child doesn’t have a valid SSN, your child may still qualify you for the Credit for Other Dependents. This is a non-refundable credit of up to $500 per qualifying person. If your dependent child lived with you in the United States and has an ITIN, but not an SSN, issued by the due date of your 2018 return (including extensions), you may be able to claim the new Credit for Other Dependents for that child.
Spouses and dependents residing outside the United States who use Individual Taxpayer Identification Numbers – a tax processing number issued by the IRS – should review the information on IRS.gov/ITIN to determine whether they need to renew an ITIN before filing a tax return next year. They do not need to renew their ITINs if they would have been claimed as dependents qualifying for this personal exemption benefit and not for any other benefit.
Do you Have a Federal Tax Problem You Need Help With?
The Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic – Low Income Taxpayer Clinic can consult with you to provide advice regarding your IRS tax problem, and/or potentially act on your behalf for FREE if you qualify for assistance (come to a clinic intake session)!
Jim Floyd is the Staff Enrolled Agent at the Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic – Low Income Taxpayer Clinic. As an Enrolled Agent, Jim is a federally-licensed tax practitioner with unlimited rights to represent clients before the Internal Revenue Service. This means he is unrestricted as to which taxpayers he can represent, what types of tax matters he can handle, and which IRS offices he can represent clients before. Enrolled agent status is the highest credential the IRS awards.
Jim is also a member of The American Society of Tax Problem Solvers (ASTPS), a non-profit professional association of practitioners that specialize in representing taxpayers before the IRS and other taxing authorities. Membership in ASTPS reflects commitment to excellence and high standards in taxpayer representation
Source: Internal Revenue Service